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Ira.

Rage.

Emblema lxiii.

Alcaeam veteres caudam dixere leonis,
Qua stimulante iras concipit ille graves.
Lutea cùm surgit bilis, crudescit & atro
Felle dolor, furias excitat indomitas.[1]

The ancients called the lion’s tail alcaea, for under its stimulus he takes on dreadful fury. When the yellow bile rises and his temper grows savage with the black gall, the tail incites his indomitable rage.

ADmonemur irae impetum cohibendum esse,
omnésque occasiones devitandas, quòd ea per-
turbatio sic hominem extra se deiiciat, ut quasi
transformetur in belluam ferocissimam.

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Cholere.

LEs anciens ont nommé la queuë du Lyon
Alcee: car estant de quelque motion
Espris, il se transporte, & se jette en furie.
Quand la cholere monte, elle saisist le coeur,
Trouble l’homme, & ravit de tresforte douleur,
Et luy baille le saut d’une extreme agonie.

NOus sommes advertis d’arrester la ve-
hemence & impetuosité de cholere, &
qu’il fault eviter toutes occasions inclinan-
tes à icelle, parce que ceste perturbation
met l’homme hors de soy, de sorte qu’il
semble qu’il soit mué en une beste tres-
cruelle.

Notes:

1.  The Greek word ἀλκαία was supposedly derived from ἀλκή ‘strength’ (see emblem 3, n.3, [FALc003]). The Etymologicum Magnum, an ancient Greek lexicon, defines ἀλκαία as ‘properly the tail of the lion, because it urges him on to strength (ἀλκή)’. Pliny, Natural History, 8.16.49, describes how the lion’s tail lashes with increasing fury and spurs him on. See also Aelian, De natura animalium, 5.39.


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