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TUMULUS IOANNIS GA-
leacii Vicecomitis
primi Ducis
Mediolani.[1]

The tomb of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, first Duke of Milan

Pro tumulo pone Italiam, pone arma ducesque,[2]
Et mare quod geminos mugit adusque sinus.
Adde his barbariem[3] conantem irrumpere frustra
Gallus uti, & Teuton alpe & hyberus aquis.[4]
Anguiger autem[5] summo sistens in culmine dicat,
Quīs parvis magnum me super imposuit?

Instead of the tomb, put Italy, put weapons and leaders, and the sea which roars right up to the twin curving coasts. Add to these the barbarian host, trying in vain to burst in, like the French, the German over the Alps and the Spanish by sea. But the one holding a snake, standing on the roof of the tomb, may well say: Who has put me, great as I am, on top of little things?

Notes:

1.  Gian Galeazzo Visconti (1351-1402), created first Duke of Milan in 1395. Noted for his ruthlessness, he united most of the Po valley under the rule of Milan for the first time, defeated Bologna, and set his sights on Florence until his death saved that city.

2.  This epigram is based on Anthologia graeca 7.73 (by Geminos, but wrongly attributed to Germanicus in the sixteenth century). The Greek epigram is concerned with what would be a worthy tomb for the Greek hero Themistocles, who was buried in a very simple grave. It suggests one with representations of Salamis and the Persians, recalling the hero’s most famous exploit, the victory over the Persians at the battle of Salamis. Likewise, memorials of Visconti’s achievements are proposed here.

3.  ‘the barbarian host’, i.e. the ‘barbarian’ French, who were induced to become involved in the Milan/Florence conflict and were defeated by Visconti. The French are mentioned specifically in the version of this poem found in Selecta epigrammata p.254, where 1.4 reads: Gallus ut et Theuton Alpe et Hyberus aquis, ‘like the Gaul and the Teuton via the Alps and the Spaniard via the sea’. In Alciato’s day, the French continued to overrun the Italian peninsula and attempt to dictate its internal affairs.

4.  This line is completely changed in later editions.

5.  This is presumably a figure of the Duke of Milan, whose arms included a snake; see [A31a001]. In the accompanying woodcut, we have written on a snaking ribbon held by a figure the Greek version (taken from the original Greek epigram) of the Latin words quoted in l.6.


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    CONSILIO ET VIRTUTE CHI-
    meram
    superari id est fortiores
    & deceptores.

    Wisdom and courage defeat Chimaera (i.e. the powerful and deceivers).

    Bellerophon ut fortis eques superare chimeram[M]
    Et licii potuit sternere monstra soli.[1]
    Sic tu pegasei vectus petis aethera pennis,
    Consilioque animi[2] monstra superba domas.

    Bellerophon, that bold horseman, was able to overcome the Chimaera and lay low the monsters of the Lycian land. You likewise, borne on wings of Pegasus, seek the high heavens and, by the counsel of reason, tame proud monsters.

    [Marginalia - link to text]Vide Fulgentium in Mithalogiis lib. 3. in principio.

    Notes:

    1.  The King of Lycia imposed on Bellerophon, among other tasks, that of killing the Chimaera, a fire-breathing monster with a lion’s head, serpent’s tail and goat’s body. He achieved this last with the aid of the winged horse Pegasus, which Athena, goddess of wisdom, helped him to catch.

    2.  ‘by the counsel of reason’. The name Bellerophon was interpreted by some as ‘bringer of counsel’. The Chimaera symbolised various uncontrolled passions.


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      • mis-shapen animals; monsters [25F9] Search | Browse Iconclass
      • chimera (lion/goat/snake); 'Chimera' (Ripa) (+ fighting animals; aggressive relations) [25FF232(+751)] Search | Browse Iconclass
      • fabulous animals ~ hoofed animals (with NAME) [25FF24(WINGED HORSE)] Search | Browse Iconclass
      • Counsel; 'Consiglio' (Ripa) [52E3] Search | Browse Iconclass
      • Strength, Power; 'Fortezza', 'Fortezza d'Animo e di corpo', 'Fortezza del corpo congiunta con la generositą dell'animo', 'Fortezza & valore del corpo congiunto con la prudenza & virtł del animo', 'Forza' (Ripa) (+ emblematical representation of concept) [54A7(+4)] Search | Browse Iconclass
      • Virtuousness; 'Amor di Virtł', 'Attione virtuosa', 'Guida sicura de' veri honori', 'Virtł', 'Virtł insuperabile' (Ripa) (+ emblematical representation of concept) [57A6(+4)] Search | Browse Iconclass
      • Cheat, Deceit; 'Fraude', 'Inganno' (Ripa) (+ emblematical representation of concept) [57AA621(+4)] Search | Browse Iconclass
      • historical person (with NAME) [61B2(FULGENTIUS, FABIUS PLANCIADES)] Search | Browse Iconclass
      • Pegasus, the winged horse [93D1] Search | Browse Iconclass
      • Bellerophon, flying on Pegasus' back, kills the Chimera, a fire-breathing monster, with arrows or a spear [94S32] Search | Browse Iconclass

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