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Gula.

Gluttony

LXVI.

Curculione gruis tumida vir pingitur alvo,
Qui laurum, aut manibus gestet onocrotalum[1].
Talis forma fuit Dionysi[2], & talis Apici,[3]
Et gula quos celebres deliciosa facit.

We have here painted a man with a crane’s long gullet and a swollen belly, holding in his hands a gull or pelican. Such was the form of Dionysius, such the form of Apicius, and all those whom gourmet taste makes famous.

Notes:

1. These birds were symbols of ravenous greed. The pelican is called inexplebile animal, ‘insatiable creature’, by Pliny, Natural History, 10.66.131; cf. Emblem 283 ([A56a283]). For the gull, see Erasmus, Adagia, 1133 (Larus: the gull will also fit food-suppliers because it is a bird with an appetite for fish).

2. Dionysius II, Tyrant of Syracuse. After his deposition, he lived in Corinth, and many anecdotes were told of his indulgent way of life there, including the story that he died of being overweight.

3. Apicius was a famous gourmet of the time of the Emperor Tiberius. See Seneca, De consolatione, 10.8-9 and Martial, Epigrams, 3.22: he spent a hundred million sesterces on food items and committed suicide for fear of starvation on discovering that he had only one million left. He composed two cookery books, but the one which has come down to us under his name is a fourth- to fifth-century compilation drawing on his works and several others (ed. princ. Le Signerre, Milan 1498).


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    • Gluttony, Intemperance, 'Gula'; 'Gola', 'Ingordigia', 'Ingordigia overo Avidità ', 'Voracità ' (Ripa) ~ personification of one of the Seven Deadly Sins [11N35] Search | Browse Iconclass
    • water-birds: pelican [25F36(PELICAN)] Search | Browse Iconclass
    • shore-birds and wading-birds: gull [25F37(GULL)] Search | Browse Iconclass
    • holding something «« KEY (933) TO 31A the (nude) human figure; 'Corpo humano' (Ripa) [31A(+933)] Search | Browse Iconclass
    • anthropomorphic beings with parts of abnormal shape (+ abdomen, belly) [31A444(+13)] Search | Browse Iconclass
    • anthropomorphic beings with parts of abnormal shape (+ neck) [31A444(+615)] Search | Browse Iconclass
    • anthropomorphic beings with parts of abnormal shape (+ neck) [31A444(+615):25F37(CRANE)(+3)] Search | Browse Iconclass
    • Intemperance, Immoderation (+ emblematical representation of concept) [54AA43(+4)] Search | Browse Iconclass
    • specific aspects, allegorical aspects of Bacchus; Bacchus as patron [92L17] Search | Browse Iconclass
    • male persons from classical history (with NAME) representations to which the NAME of a person from classical history may be attached [98B(APICIUS, Marcus Gavius)3] Search | Browse Iconclass

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    In colores.

    On Colours

    LVI.

    Index moestitiae est pullus color, utimur omnes
    Hoc habitu tumulis cm damus inferias:
    At synceri animi, & mentis stola candida purae.
    Hinc sindon sacris linea grata viris.
    Nos sperare docet viridis, spes dicitur esse
    In viridi, quoties irrita retro cadit.[1]
    Est cupidis flavus color, est & amantibus aptus,
    Et scortis, & queis spes sua certa fuit.
    At ruber armatos equites exornet amictus,
    Indicet & pueros erubuisse pudor.
    Caeruleus nautas, & qui coelestia vates
    Attoniti nimia relligione petunt.
    Link to an image of this page Link to an image of this page [n7v p206]Vilia sunt gilvis nativaque vellera birris,
    Qualia lignipedes stragula habere solent.
    Quem curae ingentes cruciant, vel zelus amoris,
    Creditur hic fulva non mal veste tegi.
    Quisquis sorte sua contentus, ianthina gestet,
    Fortunae aequanimis taedia quique ferat.
    Ut varia est natura coloribus in gignendis,
    Sic aliis aliud, sed sua cuique placent. [2]

    Black is a sign of sadness; we all use this garb when we perform funeral rites at tombs. But white clothes are a sign of a sincere mind and pure thoughts. Hence the sindon, the linen garment beloved of holy men. Green teaches us to hope. Hope is said to be in the green whenever it sinks back unfulfilled. A gold colour is suitable for avaricious people and lovers, and whores, and anyone whose hopes have come to fruition. Let red garb adorn armed horsemen, let modesty show boys blushing. Blue suits sailors and prophets who, muddled with too much religion, pursue things in the skies. Cheap and untreated are the fleeces for dun-coloured cloaks, the sort of coverings that the wooden-legged have. A man tortured by great anxieties or the jealousy of love is considered appropriately dressed in yellow. Anyone content with his lot may wear mauve, also the man who bears with composure the unpleasantnesses inflicted by Fortune. - Nature is diverse in producing the colours, and different things are for different situations. Yet each of us is pleased by what is his own.

    Notes:

    1. ‘Green teaches us to hope’. Cf. Emblem 78, line 5 ([A56a078]. In viridi, ‘in the green’ echoes the phrase in herba, for hopes unfulfilled. See e.g. Ovid, Ex Ponto, 16.263: ‘adhuc tua messis in herba est’ (your harvest is still in green leaf).

    2. ‘each of us is pleased by what is his own’. Cf. Erasmus, Adagia, 115 (suum cuique pulchrum).


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